3D Printing: How does it work? And what excels over traditional printing?

Using two types of rays and a resin bowl, the new 3D printer offers 100 times faster printing than conventional printers. 3D printing has proved its promise in the industry within a limited range, promptly and with incredible efficiency, but has been unable to prove its high efficiency when widely used in the industry due to its slow speed.

However, the new technology developed at the University of Michigan promises users to print complex designs 100 times faster than current printers and may open the door to large-scale applications.

Working principle of 3D printing

The way current 3D printers work is to read a file from a 3D model and rebuild the model by placing the resin in small lines, and in layers, one by one until the desired model is created.

However, the larger the model, the longer the process is completed as the length and height increase and therefore the volume increases. Prints more than one copy of the same form.

How new technology works

New 3D printing technology can deliver a 3D product in minutes instead of hours at up to 100 times. The printer uses a resin shell and some smart technologies using ultraviolet light and blue LED light (no laser needed) to speed up printing.video player

When you look at this printing process, it looks as if you are watching a film that is displayed in reverse, depicting the melting of any model in an acid container. But instead of acid, this tank contains a resin specially designed for this printing process, which solidifies when exposed to a certain wavelength of blue light. It is worth noting here that the resin hardening or, scientifically known as resin polymerization, does not occur when exposed to a wavelength of ultraviolet radiation.

The mechanism of 3D printing

The resin absorbs particularly the wavelengths of both blue and ultraviolet rays, so the intensity of the ultraviolet or blue light to which the resin is exposed will directly affect the depth to which the light will penetrate the resin container. The more intense the light, the deeper it will be and its effect. Inhibition of polymerization in the case of ultraviolet light, or in the case of blue light will be observed along the specified path of light.

Timothy Scott, an assistant professor of chemical engineering at the University of Michigan, says the way to output a printed 3D model is to send ultraviolet light through a glass-bottom resin basin and then through the same glass window to send patterns of light. Bright and dim blue.

If this printing process uses only blue light, the first part of the resin encountered by these rays will immediately harden directly into the aquarium behind the glass so that each successive layer of the object to be printed will need to be scraped or pulled from the window surface, a time-consuming process or We will not reach the model we are aiming for.

We use the wavelength of ultraviolet radiation to block polymerization in the resin parts corresponding to the blue light beam, but we can change the intensity of the inhibitory wavelength of the polymerization process, which in turn can increase the thickness of the unpolymerized region. We can easily reach hundreds of microns of polymerized resin, or approach millimeters or even more, so the non-polymerized part becomes very thick, and we can do this across the entire area of ​​the resin basin of the processor selectively by modeling the density. The beam to which the resin is exposed.

This is why UV light is perhaps the main innovation in this discovery, which simplifies the entire 3D printing process of the entire optical resin, also called 3D stereoscopic printing.

To be clear, three-dimensional 3D printers and other startups exist in the world. But the new thing presented by the Michigan Group’s research (published in Science Advances earlier this month) is a UV light inhibitor that not only prevents the hardened resin from sticking to the glass window of the resin container, but can also be used in concert with blue light to carve Three-dimensional surfaces of resin that harden the container.

The thing is that this printer does not print two-dimensional layers in succession, but it creates multiple sizes in the form of pegs to reach the final shape. Designing a two-dimensional model is easy, and three-dimensional design is not simple. ”

Another advantage of the process, which Scott says his group is now trying to patent, is the relatively low-cost equipment needed to make one of these 3D printers. We can issue both UV and blue light from LED ready lamps.

Scott says his group has managed to produce two meters of 3D printed material per hour, unlike the typical 3D print speed of stereoscopic printing that prints a stereo within 25 mm within an hour.

This process is relatively quick, but it will not replace printing operations based on molding and injection of materials or other traditional high-speed manufacturing techniques. However, this printer is very promising in the area of ​​personalized printed products, for example, dental devices or medical devices that should be suitable for a person’s teeth or body.